By Harvey J. Irwin, Caroline A. Watt
This is a completely up-to-date and revised version of our hugely acclaimed college textbook at the technological know-how of parapsychology. the target of this e-book is to supply an introductory survey of parapsychologists' efforts to discover the authenticity and bases of anomalous, it appears paranormal phenomena. It outlines the origins of parapsychological examine and severely reports investigations of extrasensory belief, psychokinesis, poltergeist phenomena, near-death and out-of-body reports, and the overview of parapsychology as a systematic company.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Parapsychology (5th Edition)
Gottschalk, Stone, & Gleser, 1974; Siitonen & Tanne, 1976). indb 28 3/21/08 12:00:24 PM Characterizing Social Anxiety Disorder 29 Jacob, 1994). For example, Liebowitz et al. (1992) compared the effects of phenelzine, atenolol, and placebo for treating SAD and found no advantage of atenolol over placebo. Only 30% responded to atenolol as compared with 64% of patients receiving phenelzine and 23% of patients taking a pill placebo. Similar results were reported by Turner, Beidel, & Jacob (1994) who found no benefit of atenolol over pill placebo.
It is important to note that this conditioning effect is only obtained when the stimulus person directs his or her anger toward the subject; angry faces looking away are as ineffective as happy faces in conditioning paradigms (Dimberg & Öhman, 1983). This finding suggests that direct eye contact is crucial. In primates, direct eye contact seems to be very frightening. Moreover, various species display eyelike spots to frighten potential predators. Although the response to eye contact is greatly altered by contextual and learning factors among humans, it is also a hard-wired evolutionary response that is common to all mammals.
1 provides an overview of the maintaining factors of SAD. This model also includes important mediators of treatment change. Briefly stated, the treatment model indicates that social apprehension is associated with unrealistic expectations regarding social standards and a deficiency for selecting specific and attainable social goals. When confronted with challenging social situations, people with SAD typically shift their attention toward the negative aspects of themselves and their social performance.