Introduction

An Introduction to Nuclear Astrophysics: The Formation and by Jean Audouze, Sylvie Vauclair (auth.)

By Jean Audouze, Sylvie Vauclair (auth.)

TO NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS The Formation and the Evolution of topic within the Universe JEAN AUDOUZE lnstitut d'Astrophysique de Paris, France and SYLVIE VA UCLAI R DAPHE, Ohservatoire de Meudon, France and lnstitut d'Astrophysique, Paris D, REIDEL PUBLISHING corporation DORDRECHT: HOLLAND/BOSTON: U. S. A. LONDON: ENGLAND Library of Congre~ Cataloging in booklet facts Audouzc. Jean An creation to nuclear astrophysics. (Geophysics and astrophysics monographs; v. 18) En!. and up to date translation of L'Astrophysique nuclt\aire. comprises bibliographies and index. \. Nuclear astrophysics. I. Vauclair, Sylvie, joint writer. II. identify. III. sequence. QB464. A9313 1979 523. 01'9'7 79-20752 ISBN-13: 978-90-277-1053-6 e-ISBN-13: 978-94-009-9477-5 DO I: 10. 1007/978-94-009-9477-5 released through D. Reidel Publishing corporation, P. O. field 17. Dordrecht, Holland bought and allotted within the U. S. A. , Canada, and Mexico by way of D. Reidel Publishing corporation, Inc. Lincoln construction. a hundred and sixty previous Derby road, Hingham, Mass. 02043, U. S. A. All Rights Reserved Copyright © 1980 by way of D. Reidel Publishing corporation, Dordrecht, Holland Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st version 1980 No a part of the cloth safe by way of this copyright observe will be reproduced or used in any shape or whatsoever, digital or mechanical, together with photocopying, recording or through any informational garage and retrieval procedure, with out written permission from the copyright proprietor desk OF CONTENTS IX FOREWORD advent xi XXI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS bankruptcy I / THE OBSERVATIONAL foundation OF NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS 1. 1. the significance of the 4 primary Interactions 1 1. 2.

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The disk is surrounded by a halo which has a spherical symmetry. The majority of the stars are located inside the disk. They are called population I stars and are generally more blue and younger than the stars of the halo (population II stars). The disk is not homogeneous. Spiral arms can be observed inside the disk. They correspond to a maximum of the star and of the interstellar gas density. These arms rotate around the center with a period of about 108 yr. The so-called galactic clusters or open clusters are found in the disk of our own Galaxy.

The H nuclear burning occurring in a star of m solar masses lasts - 10 ' °/m 3 yr (with a lower limit of lQ",yr). THE EVOLUTION OF MATTER IN THE UNIVERSE 31 The same scenario takes place once more: C burning at '" 8 x 108 K, and 0 burning at '" 10 9 K Then the star appears in the giant or supergiant region ofthe HR diagram. If the gravitational contraction is able to raise the central temperature to ",4 to 5 x 109 K, Si, which is then the most stable element, undergoes a quasi-equilibrium fusion which transforms it into Fe group elements.

B) The evolution ofa SM (;) star towards the main sequence. (e) The evolution of the same star after the main sequence. A SM(;) star stays approximately 108 yr on the main sequence (dashed line). collapse. The star goes on contracting in a thermostatic time (of the order of 10 7 yr). Its luminosity decreases while its external temperature remains approximately constant. The star is then entirely convective (like a boiling magma) and it may undergo violent events: the so-called 'T -Tauri stars' are presently in this phase of their evolution, as well as the 'flare stars', those very strange stars, for which the luminosity increases by a factor of 100 during a few seconds!

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