Introduction

An Introduction to Marine Geology by M. J. Keen and J. A. Jacobs (Auth.)

By M. J. Keen and J. A. Jacobs (Auth.)

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2 is based, o r after H. U. Sverdrup, 261 30 M. JohnsonantLR. H. F l e m i n g / ) ) (AfterJ. S. < >). of large tests of the species does not necessarily represent optimal environmental conditions but marginal conditions. This observation has its counterpart in the study of Foraminifera in sediment cores. One criterion for recognition of the change from the warmer conditions of the Pliocene to the colder conditions of the Pleistocene is the change in abundance and size of Globorotalia menardii.

This gap joins the Biscay plain and the Iberian plain; it is shown in Fig. 3. The abyssal plains may be cut not only by channels which lead from submarine canyons, but also by mid-ocean canyons, of which a fine example is the Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Canyon, found in the Labrador Sea and which leads through a gap into the Sohm abyssal plain. This is shown in Figs. 11. The origin of this, as of submarine canyons, is not obvious; the first suggestion one might make is that it is cut by sediments transported as turbidity currents, originating in the main part from the Davis Strait and Hudson Strait.

The organisms must also be sensitive to changes in the properties of the water masses, to the temperature of the water at the surface, for example, and the relationship between the changes that are found in the organisms and the properties of the water must be known. The problem can be attacked in a number of ways. Laboratory studies of the influence of properties such as salinity, temperature, hydrostatic Fig. 2. Distribution of living planktonic faunal assemblages in the North Pacific Ocean: general distribution of northern cold-water (subarctic) fauna, southern warm-water fauna (central and equatorial west central) and transition fauna 30) (after J .

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