Public Policy

Access to History. Civil Rights in the USA 1945-68 by Vivienne Sanders

By Vivienne Sanders

The Access to History sequence is the most well-liked and relied on sequence for AS- and A-level background scholars. the recent variants mix all of the strengths of this well-loved sequence with a brand new layout and lines that permit all scholars entry to the content material and learn talents had to in achieving examination luck. Civil Rights within the united states, 1945-68 has been written in particular to aid the Edexcel and AQA AS devices for the 2008 necessities. It attracts on revered and best-selling content material from Race family within the united states, 1860-1981 and adapts this content material with the intention to conceal the necessities of the shorter devices. Tracing the advance of African American civil rights within the united states, this name levels from segregation within the Fifties to the expansion of radicalism within the sixties. through the e-book, key dates, phrases, and concerns are highlighted, and ancient interpretations of key debates are defined. precis diagrams are incorporated to consolidate wisdom and knowing of the interval, and exam-style questions and suggestions written by means of examiners for every exam board give you the chance to boost examination skills.

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There was jealousy over the best jobs and white males disliked black men working alongside white women. Over a million blacks served in the armed forces in the Second World War. Southern military bases containing Northern black soldiers were trouble spots. In Alexandria, Louisiana, a drunken black soldier’s arrest led to a two-hour riot in which black troops, white Military Police, state troopers, local police and civilians participated; 13 blacks were shot. ’ Disputes over housing were the main cause of the 1943 riot.

It is race prejudice I guess. But I am strongly of the opinion that Negroes ought to be in Africa, yellow men in Asia, and white men in Europe and America. When Truman went off to fight to ‘make the world safe for democracy’ in the First World War, he sailed from New York which he felt had too many Jews (he called it ‘Kike [Jew] town’) and ‘Wops’ (Italians). In all this, he was typical of his era. (c) Truman in politics Early in his political career he did what many aspiring politicians did and paid $10 membership dues to the Ku Klux Klan, but apparently got his money back when he insisted on the right to appoint Catholics as well as Protestants to office.

From 1931 it concentrated on obtaining a Supreme Court ruling that unequal expenditure on black and white education was against the 14th Amendment. Black law professor Charles Houston of Howard University directed NAACP’s legal campaign after 1934. Houston insisted that NAACP should employ black lawyers. At Howard he had trained a black lawyer élite for this task. In 1936 NAACP hired his star pupil, Thurgood Marshall (‘lean, hard, and Hollywood handsome’, according to Roy Wilkins). Houston and Marshall led the fight against segregated education in the 1930s and 1940s, working to involve black communities in litigation at 30 | Civil Rights in the USA 1945–68 Profile: Roy Wilkins 1901–81 1901 1905 1923 1931 1934 1955 1960s 1965–8 1970s 1977 – Born in St Louis, Missouri, son of a brick kiln worker who had fled Mississippi because he had beaten a white man over a racial insult – After his mother died, brought up by his uncle, a railroad porter, in St Paul, Minnesota, in a middle class home in a relatively integrated neighbourhood – Graduated from the University of Minnesota; during his time at university he was the first black reporter for the college newspaper and an active member of local NAACP branch – Became a reporter in Kansas City, and secretary of Kansas City branch of NAACP – NAACP leader Walter White asked Wilkins to become his assistant – Became editor of NAACP’s magazine Crisis – After Walter White died, unanimously elected NAACP leader (held post for 22 years) – Increasingly criticised by blacks who opposed his beliefs in integration and his confidence in US institutions.

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