By Andreas Faludi (Eds.)
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Extra info for A Reader in Planning Theory
Facts by 29 There is one legitimate and necessary exception: survey and analysis of client values. Study of their shape, incidence, and intensity makes a valid starting point for20planning studies. A practical reason to delay research studies is to avoid unnecessary or unproductive studies. Planning agencies, as is painfully known, are the repositories of many unutilized surveys. A Reader in Planning Theory 30 [Parti themselves will not suggest what would be good or what should be preferred. T o illustrate this point, a factual survey of housing conditions in a given area would not give rise to a value judgment or a goal in the absence of an attitude about the way people ought to live in residential structures.
MYRDAL, GUNNAR, Value in Social Theory, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1958. 22. REINER, THOMAS Α . , The Place of the Ideal Community in Urban Planning, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1962 (in press). A Choice Theory of Planning 39 23. RIESMAN, DAVID, "Some observations on community plans and Utopia", TheYale Law Journal, Vol. LVII (December 1947), pp. , 1954. 24. SCHOEFFLER, SIDNEY, "Toward a general definition of rational action", Kyklos, Vol. VII, No. 3 (1954), pp. 245-73; reprinted in The Failure of Economics, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1955: Appendix A.
32 A Reader in Planning Theory [Parti responsibility to reveal to the decision-maker the grounds for selecting the particular alternative. Legal procedures adopted in our society reject the thesis that ends justify any means; furthermore, means vary in their effects on different client groups. Hence, the process of means identification is politically charged and must be resolved without arbitrariness. T h e technician has an important role to play in assessing the impact of alternative means. However, the tasks of adopting criteria for evaluation (during the value-formulation stage) and determining finally the appropriate alternatives are not his, unless these functions have been expressly delegated.