Introduction

A Laboratory Introduction to Psychology by John W. P. Ost

By John W. P. Ost

Advent to laboratory experiments within the box of psychology, uncomplicated for advent collage classes

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While the ratio varies from reinforcement to reinforcement, we can specify the schedule by the average or mean value of the several ratios employed. Thus "VR-10" reads "Variable Ratio-ten" and means that on the average the different ratios in the schedule reinforce every tenth response, some ratios being longer and some shorter than ten. 3. Interval. In ratio schedules, the contingency of reinforcement depends on the number of responses the animal makes. On interval schedules, the reinforcement contingency is dependent upon time and independent of the number of responses made by the animal.

The contingency may be set to reward every other response, every third response, every tenth response, or in general every Mh response. The outstanding feature of this type of schedule is that the animal must make a fixed number of responses in order to receive a single reinforcement, or in other words, there is a definite ratio of unreinforced to reinforced responses. atio. " Thus FR-12 reads "Fixed Ratio twelve" and means that the animal receives a reinforcement for every twelfth response, eleven responses going unrewarded.

The two groups' judgments can be compared by calculating mean scale values of each group for each trial of the experiment. Scale Category Value VVH VH H 9 8 7 Scale Category Value MH M ML 6 5 4 Scale Category Value L VL WL 3 2 1 54 EXPERIMENT 9 REFERENCE Di LoUo, V. Contrast effects in the judgment of lifted weights. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1964, 68, 383-387. Data Sheet Experiment 9: Adaptation Level Trial Order Category Scale Value Mean Trial 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 Order Category Scale Value Mean {Continued) 55 Datasheet Trial (Continued) Order Category Scale Value Mean Trial Order Category 6 6 / 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 56 Scale Value Mean EXPERIMENT 10 RELATIVE-SIZE ILLUSION PROBLEM It is well known that the size of an object is judged, in part, by comparison with other objects nearby in the field.

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