Public Policy

A General Theory of Domination and Justice by Frank Lovett

By Frank Lovett

In all societies, previous and current, many people and teams were topic to domination. adequately understood, domination is a smart evil, the agony of which needs to be minimized as far as attainable. unusually, notwithstanding, political and social theorists have didn't supply a close research of the concept that of domination commonly. This learn goals to redress this lacuna. It argues first, that domination could be understood as a situation skilled through people or teams to the level that they're depending on a social dating during which someone else or crew wields arbitrary energy over them; this can be termed the 'arbitrary strength notion' of domination. It argues moment, that we should always regard it as fallacious to perpetrate or enable pointless domination and, hence, that as an issue of justice the political and social associations and practices of any society may be equipped for you to reduce avoidable domination; this can be termed 'justice as minimizing domination', a notion of social justice that connects with extra general civic republican bills of freedom as non-domination. In constructing those arguments, this research employs numerous methodological techniques--including conceptual research, formal modelling, social concept, and ethical philosophy; latest debts of dependency, strength, social conference, etc are clarified, extended, or revised alongside the way in which. whereas of distinctive curiosity to modern civic republicans, this examine should still entice a large viewers with diversified methodological and great interests.

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3 S O C I A L RE L AT I ON S H IP S Sometimes, we need not consider what other people might do. Whether we achieve our goals or aims in such cases is determined simply by what we decide to do—or, at any rate, by what we decide to do plus (some degree of) luck. Other times, our fates are out of our hands, determined entirely by the decisions of others, by luck, or by some combination of these. Most of the time, however, whether we achieve our goals or aims will depend jointly on what we decide to do together with what others decide to do (and, perhaps, luck).

Of course, it is disputed what goals or aims it is reasonable to have. On one theory—what is called ethical egoism—it is only reasonable to have self-regarding or egoistic goals and aims. If ethical egoism were the correct view, then our altruist who aimed to reduce hate speech while respecting the right of free speech might (like the embezzler) be acting rationally, but not reasonably. 14 Since, by definition, we cannot determine whether purposeful action is reasonable without substantively evaluating its goals or aims on normative grounds, reasonableness is not a descriptive concept.

From this point of view, what matters is a person’s subjective exit costs, not the objective value of her next best option. This, at any rate, is what I attempt to argue. 4 DOMINAT ION AS STRUCTURE Consider again our core cases of domination. What makes these sorts of social relationships, and not others, instances of domination? In particular, does this 26 Barry (2001, pp. 149–50) and Shapiro (2003, pp. 44–6) take something of a contrary view, but they are putting the idea of exit costs to other uses.

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