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A comprehensive guide to virtual private networks. Volume I by International Business Machines Corporation

By International Business Machines Corporation

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Both the number and the complexity of filtering rules will be greatly reduced, and they will be used for fine-tuning only after a packet has already been successfully authenticated by IPSec. And since IPSec′ s authentication and encryption protocols can be applied simultaneously to a given packet, strong access control can be enforced even when the data itself is encrypted. If the security gateway (firewall or router) is the endpoint of the tunnel, it still enables you to use packet filtering between itself and the destination host in the secure network, because the packet filters are evaluated before a packet is sent to the IPSec kernel, that is, before applying authentication and/or encryption.

1998 23 Note: As a general rule, be conservative. Do not trust brand new, unknown or unpublished algorithms. The principle of the keyed ciphers is shown in Figure 10 on page 24. Figure 10. Keyed Encryption and Decryption Note: It is common in the cryptographic literature to denote the first participant in a protocol as Alice and the second one as Bob. They are the ″crypto couple″. Authentication, Integrity, and Non-repudiation Encryption provides confidentiality to your messages. When communicating over an untrusted medium, such as the Internet, besides confidentiality, you need more: • Authentication - A method for verifying that the sender of a message is really he or she claims to be.

2 Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange The Diffie-Hellman key exchange is a crucial component of the ISAKMP/Oakley framework. In the earliest phase of a key negotiation session there is no secure channel in place. The parties derive shared secret keys using the Diffie-Hellman algorithm. These keys will be used in the next steps of the key negotiation protocol. The outline of the algorithm is the following: 1. The parties (Alice and Bob) share two public values, a modulus m and an integer g; m should be a large prime number.

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