# A collection of Data Science Interview Questions Solved in by Antonio Gulli By Antonio Gulli

BigData and desktop studying in Python and Spark

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The code adopts python lambda computation for compact representations of anonymous functions.  11. Can you provide examples for other computations in Spark? Solution The first code fragment is an example of map reduction, where we want to find the line with most words in a text. First each line is mapped into the number of words it contains. Then those numbers are reduced and the maximum is taken. Pretty simple: one single line of code stays here for something which requires hundreds of lines in other parallel paradigms such as Hadoop.

Let us assume that we have a linear equation , we can imagine that is represented in terms of log odds so that which can be solved for as and the problem becomes the one of finding the lowest error for all training examples 37. What is a sigmoid function and what is a logistic function? A sigmoid function has the following mathematical formulation Sigmoid functions are used frequently in machine learning in particular in neural networks. Their name is related to the typical "S" shape when plotted.

The mean is defined as the sum of values divided by the number of values: The variance measures how far a set of numbers is spread out. A variance of zero shows that all the values are equal; a small variance indicates that the data points tend to be very close to the mean and therefore to each other, while a high variance indicates that the data points are more spread out. Variance is always positive. Given a random variable the variance is defined as The covariance is a measure of how much two random variables change together.