By National Research Council, Policy and Global Affairs, Technology, and Economic Policy Board on Science, Committee on Comparative Innovation Policy: Best Practice for the 21st Century, Charles Wessner, Kenneth Flamm, Masayuki Kondo, Sadao Nagaoka
Spotting potential to innovate and commercialize new high-technology items is more and more a key for the industrial progress within the surroundings of tighter environmental and source constraints, governments world wide have taken energetic steps to reinforce their nationwide innovation structures. those steps underscore the idea of those governments that the emerging bills and hazards linked to new in all probability high-payoff applied sciences, their spillover or externality-generating results and the starting to be worldwide festival, require nationwide R&D courses to aid the ideas via new and present high-technology companies inside their borders. The nationwide learn Council's Board on technology, know-how, and monetary coverage (STEP) has launched into a research of chosen international innovation courses compared to significant U.S. courses. The "21st Century Innovation platforms for the U.S. and Japan: classes from a Decade of switch" symposium reviewed govt courses and tasks to help the advance of small- and medium-sized companies, government-university- collaboration and consortia, and the influence of the highbrow estate regime on innovation. This ebook brings jointly the papers offered on the convention and offers a old context of the problems mentioned on the symposium.
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Additional resources for 21st Century Innovation Systems for Japan and the United States: Lessons from a Decade of Change: Report of a Symposium
S. information technology and biotechnology industries, Japan placed an early emphasis on the creation of technology licensing ofﬁces at the universities, Bayh-Dole type arrangements to encourage patenting, and efforts to stimulate the creation of spin-offs. It is needless to say that the basic roles of universities in a national innovation system are creating and pooling knowledge and educating students. From this viewpoint, the early policies were not enough. More policy emphasis should be directed to strengthening these fundamental functions of universities.
1998. Restoring Japan’s Economic Growth. : Peterson Institute for International Economics. Reform of University Research System ystem in Japan: Where Do They Stand? Ryuji Shimoda Tokyo Institute of Technology 1. 1 Researchers in Universities At the end of March 2005, Japanese universities had 291,000 researchers in all ﬁelds, including 190,000 in the natural sciences and engineering. Universities in Japan are classiﬁed into three categories: national universities founded by the central government, public universities founded by local governments, and private universities founded by private initiatives.
With biotechnology accounting for more than half of the ﬁrms established in 2005, the industry’s hare is continuing to grow. 9 employees and 132 million yen in sales). These average ﬁgures include 16 IPO ﬁrms, so that there are many ﬁrms with very small scale of operation. 3. CONCLUSION In the late 1980s, when the Japanese economy was booming, technology policy started to emphasize the importance of science. There was a rather widely held view that the catch-up era was ﬁnally ending, that science was becoming even more important for innovation, and that Japan’s research system lacked the human resources, equipment, and management structure to thrive in this new environment.